Friday, December 11, 2015

Research Blog Post 10

Get Down, Hook-Up: The Death of Monogamous Relationships
Amongst University Students


Abstract


            This analytical research essay addresses the concerns formed by the ever-present pseudo relationships that now dominate college communities by outlining the causes, quantifying the pros and cons, and suggesting what aided its emergence. Over the course of the past five years college students have been leaving the titles of “boyfriend” and “girlfriend” behind and leaning more towards having a casual “hook-up” whom he/she can call for late night sexual fulfillment. Put simply, the advantages to a relationship of this nature are low investment/high reward. In a university setting, many students do not have time for a committed relationship but still seek the sexual fulfillment that is yielded by such a relationship and therefore head towards the enticing alternative of a hook up buddy. This paper looks to quantify hook up culture by first addressing the causes then drawing conclusions about the outcomes caused by such a way of life with regard to each gender specifically and defining whether hook up culture is something society should be concerned with or embrace.

Work Cited
            Bradshaw, Carolyn, Arnold S. Kahn, and Bryan K. Saville. "To Hook Up or Date: Which Gender Benefits?" Springer.com. Department of Psychology, James Madison University, 01 May 2010. Web. 21 Oct. 2013.

            Bunnage, Lisa. The unsexy truth, the hookup culture. TED Talk x SFU

            Cohen, L. L., & Shotland, R. L. (1996). Timing of first sexual intercourse in a relationship: Expectation, experiences, and perceptions of others. Journal of Sex Research, 33, 291–299.

            James-Hawkins, Laurie Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health (J MIDWIFERY WOMENS HEALTH), Mar2015; 60(2): 169-174. (6p)

            Lambert, T. A., Kahn, A. S., & Apple, K. J. (2003). Pluralistic ignorance and hooking up. Journal of Sex Research, 40, 129–133.

            Mongeau, P. A., Jacobsen, J., & Donnerstein, C. (2007). Defining dates and first date goals: Generalizing from undergraduates to single adults. Communication Research, 34, 526–547.

            Monto, Martin. “Challenging the Hook-Up Culture Hype with Data.” Contemporary Sexuality. Oct2013, Vol. 47 Issue 9, p8-9. 2p.

            Paul, E. L., & Hayes, K. A. (2002). The casualties of ‘casual’ sex: A qualitative exploration of the phenomenology of college students’ hookups. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 19, 639–661.

            Sales, Nance Jo (August 2015). Tinder and the Dawn of the Dating Apocalypse. Vanity Fair.

            Taylor, Kate. “Sex on Campus: She Can Play that Game, Too.” The New York Times (July 12, 2013). Web and print.

 Teitz, Aaron. “40 Interviews conducted with Students at Rutgers University Dining Halls”.     
            Survey. November-December 2015.

Teitz, Aaron. Personal Interview.  December 3rd, 2015.


Link to paper: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1SBdpU61kvxI1P6JN1F9JVKzZggvXEUOxRQytGoozpms/edit  

Literature Review 5

Source: Communication Research Volume 34 Number 5 October 2007 526-547 © 2007 Sage Publications /crx.sagepub.com hosted at http://online.sagepub.com

Citation: Mongeau, P. A., Jacobsen, J., & Donnerstein, C. (2007). Defining dates and first date goals: Generalizing from undergraduates to single adults. Communication Research, 34, 526–547.

Summary: This research journal discusses the different goals men and women in college have with regard to dating or hooking up. The article claims (through research) that men have sexual end goals where as women have more meaningful end goal in mind. Dating has progressed over time. It is no longer just a search for a life long partner but now also a fun short term relationship that does not necessarily need to lead to anything more than a good time. 

Authors: P. A. Mongeau: Arizona State professor specializing in  Communications. He is currently the Associate Director for The Hugh Downs and as President-Elect of the Western States Communication Association. His primary research interests lie in interpersonal communication and persuasion/social influence.

J. Jacobsen: Jacobsen is a PhD in interpersonal communications and specializes in miscommunication between men and women in conversation. She is currently a member of International Association of Relationship Research, National Communication Association 
Western Speech Communication Association.


C. Donnerstein: Donnerstein has a PhD in Communications currently working in the communications department at University of Arizona. She has written many papers on human interactions including between men and women as well as how computers and technology affect human interaction.  

Quotes: Specifically, men tend to report sexually oriented goals to a greater extent than do women. Women tend to report relationship-oriented first date goals (particularly friendship) to a greater extent than do men. 

 ...sex differences suggest that women are somewhat more likely to consider first dates in terms of their relational implications than are men. In addition, as reported in Mongeau et al. (2004), the sexes are similar in the most frequently mentioned goals. It is only in the less frequent goals that sex differences appear.

Relation to my topic: All of these professors seem like great candidates to comment on the issue that I am discussing in my topic. I will use their research to show how men and women have different goals in mind when embarking on a first date. Tinder as well as other dating apps initiate first dates in a 21st century version of speed dating. I believe that the outlook of a person on a first date is indicative of what that person is looking for in his/her relationship with that person in particular. This gives a window into hook up cultures intentions because hook up culture regards sexual interaction as the first date. 

Research Blog Post 9

The Counter Argument

My argument: Hook up culture is prevalent in the college community due to the rise in technology as well as being over worked. Because of these factors, although it is an unfair construct, it is unstoppable.

The counter argument: Hook up culture is fair and grants additional power to women in relationships. NPR discusses how this culture not only aids equality between men and women because both genders are equally able to pursue the opposite sex but also discusses how these relationships formed via social media can lead to meaningful relationships and eventually marriage.

I will dispute this in my paper with interviews and surveys of students at Rutgers university who discuss that hook up culture is only for short term fulfillment and not for pursuit of long term relationships. Additionally, I will use scholarly sources like Paul, E. L., & Hayes, K. A. (2002). "The casualties of ‘casual’ sex: A qualitative exploration of the phenomenology of college students’ hookups" to show that women are less inclined to enjoying relationships of this nature and commonly feel regret after performing such acts.

Research Blog Post 8

Interview

In an interview with a Rutgers University student, she discusses how hook up culture has affected her college experience. In the interview, which was not easy for her to go on with due to the emotional trauma she experienced, she went on to discuss how she was "romantically taken advantage of" due to the constructs of hook up culture. The woman who I interviewed (who wishes to remain nameless) tells a story of how she met a guy at a party, hooked up with him and continued their relationship for around a month and a half. She goes on to discuss that although he always seemed interested in the possibility of dating, in fact, he was not interested at all. The only thing he was interested in was hooking up. Whenever she would broach the topic of dating, he would shrug it off and say there was no need to have that conversation yet. This relationship went on until one day this woman saw the man she presumed was was romantically invested in her doing the exact same thing with another woman. She claimed to be romantically taken advantage of because had she known his intentions, she would not have continued their relationship.

This is one instance at Rutgers University where a woman was taken advantage of because of the nature of hook up culture. It allows men and women to act the same way however, it appears that it is usually the case that men are the ones with multiple women thus rendering it unfair.

Research Blog Post 7

Case

Emma Sulkowicz:

Emma is a student at Columbia University who claims to have been raped by another student at school. She was engaged with the student sexually in the past however it appears that hook up culture was to blame. This case illustrates the dangers of hook up culture on campus and helps to prove my argument that women on campus are not gaining as much as they are losing with regard to hook up culture. Emma, in an attempt to shed light on the matter, brings her mattress around campus wherever she goes because it is symbolic of bringing what is closed, private and secret out into the public eye. 

Lieterature Review 4

Source: Vanity Fair Magazine

Citation: Sales, Nancy Jo (August 2015). Tinder and the Dawn of the Dating Apocalypse. Vanity Fair.
 
Summary: This essay by Nancy Sales illustrates exactly what hook up culture embodies. It uses interviews with budding professionals and college students to show how prevalent the culture is and to show how it can be detrimental to whichever community it manifests itself in. The difference between how hook up culture is embraced by males and females is apparent when reading this article. The men treat it as a competition and the women treat it as something that is forced upon them. 

Author: Nancy Jo Sales is a journalist for Vanity Fair Magazine with a specialty column called Bling Ring. 

Quotes: 
 “We are in uncharted territory” when it comes to Tinder et al., says Justin Garcia, a research scientist at Indiana University’s Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction. “There have been two major transitions” in heterosexual mating “in the last four million years,” he says. “The first was around 10,000 to 15,000 years ago, in the agricultural revolution, when we became less migratory and more settled,” leading to the establishment of marriage as a cultural contract. “And the second major transition is with the rise of the Internet.”

It is the very abundance of options provided by online dating which may be making men less inclined to treat any particular woman as a “priority,” according to David Buss, a professor of psychology at the University of Texas at Austin who specializes in the evolution of human sexuality.
(Page 5)

Relation to my topic: This essay is related to my topic because it discusses hook up culture and how it is perceived from both sides. It goes on to discuss the hesitation women have towards hook up culture and the male motivation that aids it.